This is the world of The Golden Compass/Northern Lights (and the Lyra's Oxford "Globetrotter" gazetteer, now available here) by Philip Pullman: this work's richness smote me so hard that it's shaped my own career. The trilogy starts in a parallel world that actually closely resembles Kingsley Amis's The Alteration--a planet mostly ruled by a Catho-Calvinist church drawn from the worst fever dreams of Jack Chick and Dan Brown (though I'd really describe it as the "anti-da Vinci Code": it's authentically Renaissance). The world of HDM has two distinct "feels" to it, Baroque and Victorian, two eras of exploration. Technologically there's zeppelins, rifles, polar expeditions, photograms, package steamship tours, and science-fictionalized tech like "atomcraft." And then there's a constant stream of Signs and Wonders worthy of the now-suppressed world of Blaeu, Le Testu, Lopo Homem, Kircher, John White, Richard Hakluyt, William Dampier, Walter Raleigh, and even Marco Polo and Mandeville (or Lord Darcy for that matter). So most of the map is based on those of IRL 1700 and 1789, with a lot of 1910.
The Great Powers that carved up our whole world 1860-1911 are far, far weaker here: it's not a world of vast colonies. All cultures seem on a more equal footing--there's enough Skrælings to have some be fanatical agents of the Holy Office, enough Welsh to affect Brytain's spelling, enough zombis for the GOB to buy a whole army of 'em from Benin, and neo-Puritans who're not at all squeamish at manufacturing African clockwork bugs that use demons as power and AI. Muscovy is described as facing constant invasion even though it's reached the Black Sea [Odessa and Novorossisk are listed in Once Upon a Time in the North, and Muscovy isn't described as having any "South Tartars" on the Dnieper]. There are tigers (and the wild Lithuanians who worship them) still running around right at the doorsteps of Warsaw and St. Petersburg. Brytain has to share the seas with the French, Portuguese, Danish, Austral, and New Danish fleets. With less/different techs (and without the leadfoot of global-level inequality on the demographic gas pedal) this world would only have maybe 4 billion on it.
As in the Baroque vision of the world, there are more species and unconquered cultures than have been left to our world after 1960--windsuckers, blood-eagle Breathless Ones, cliff-ghasts, hungry nälkäinen ghosts, and who-knows-what-else outside of canon. Pullman's universe has a teeming multiplicity of metaphysics and ontologies: there's Dust-resonant A-Bombs (even if the theorists had been sentenced by Canon-Law drumheads), Italian alchemists and summoners, Christian and Gnostic Christian angelology (the Random House site gets everything from The Dictionary of Angels), zombification, shamanism, Ugric nature-witches, and an astro-Cabbalistic mechanical dark-matter memory theater whose emblems read you back. These forces, respectively, are shown to fire across dimensions, chase you across Europe in a mechanical bug and again across Russia in a Calabi-Yau Merkabah, raise a Nigerian-Cossack combined force of walking dead, control lightning and bird flocks to destroy three blimps in one night, let one prophesy and talk with trees and weasels for a thousand years, and know anything anywhere anytime. It all sounds like a world where Atlantis not only never sank, but started training special ops for the Swiss Guard! Again, this isn't Pullman throwing in the kitchen sink, but instead a good picture of the various creatures, peoples, magics, sciences, and marvels discovered or thought possible by the Baroque [Crowley's Ægypt, CS Lewis's Discarded Image, Eco, Borges].
HDM is, alas, also written out of a north-Oxonian fear of plotting Papists: his Renaissance spirit is a flawed one from 1860 written by Calvinists. His main source, The Alteration, was ironically written to warn us about precisely the cosy, rumpled Oxbridge lib-Lab middle-school teachers that'd vote in Harold Wilson and make Britain the 16th Soviet Republic. And pizza joints: Amis hated anything Mediterranean. But despite wallowing in the Draper-White myth of a Church quashing joy, science, curiosity, and sylvan teen hanky-panky--basically bent on burning any book so much as mentioning women or herbs, what Pullman actually fears is heartless automatism--all existence turning into deterministic "interlocking machines, blind and empty of thought, feeling, life." Now, I've heard people blame Catholicism for creationism, Lincoln's assassination, both world wars, Stalin and Hitler, lack of Mars colonies, and the bubonic plague, but never abolishing free will and the ability to think itself! Even for a Magisterium based on the hottest fires of 15th-17th-century reformism and the most galling Victorian hypocrisy, with every bad thing done (or, for the most part, not done) by Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, or Nestorian alike piled together into one institution, that goal seems a little bit ... much. In fact, Magisterium and state combined are unable to suppress even the Gyptian Traveller/Sea Beggar hybrids in a supremely industrialized, modernized, and conformist Brytain, even giving them a special, chartered zone in the Fens. This world's mightiest military Muscovy has heathen Tartars, shamans, nature-worshiping literal Witches, and violent, Authorityless talking bear sellclaws underfoot. In London epicenes with same-sex dæmons walk in broad daylight and the regime can't keep its own kids from being kidnapped as odalisques and dancing boys in the Muslim world. The Magisterium in fact never burned any witches and the very suggestion floors the L-Worlder Lapland witches with its unthinkability. There don't seem to have been any European wars [Amis], and napalm is unheard-of in New Denmark. Our world may give nuns the right to leave the cloister over eating marzipan and kissing Italians (though not vice-versa)--but all we got OTL is McWorld battling the hyper-Salafists, the I Ching, those Pius X creeps, and poking the Russian Bear.
New France goes as far as Manitoba, which was the site of two Franco-Skræling Métis Risings IRL: New Taranto [Toronto] has plenty of Italians.
New Denmark is a very confederated republic that united in 1761 and won Michigan, Illinois, and the trans-Mississippi from France in 1848 (precipitating a crisis in Europe). It's an economic powerhouse through specializing in transshipment, insurance, and "pure" natural-theological research, rivaling Muscovy or Europe. It provides significant theological freedom, with Anabaptists, Hussites, Lollards, and Waldensians pouring into the New England and the Great Plains [Amis]. They've also invented the "moving picture," where you draw on cellulose acetate and re-project it (though Lyra's never seen one). [Alternatively New Denmark proper stops at the Mississippi, New France continues down to NOLA, and California's Castilian.]
States and cities:
Assiniboia (Sask., Alta.)
Carlotania (Minn., Wis.): Charlotte [Milwaukee], St. Paul
Dakota (plus Mont.): the presence of a "Rapid City" means it's not French
La Florida: St. Augustine
Illinoia: Chicagua, New Cahokia [Cairo]
Mékinac (Mich.): Pontchartrain [Detroit]
Miami (Ind.): Miami [Indianapolis]
Mississippi (plus half of Ala.)
Missourie (plus Kans., Neb.): Des Moines, Kansai City, St. Louis
Monmouth (Md.--named for the duke, whose historical role would be quite changed without Protestantism): Grand Harbor [Washington], Monmouth [Baltimore]
New England: Hartford, New Ipswich [Boston--the Puritans are still East Angles]
New Denmark (N.J.--rather than New Sweden)
New Jutland (N.C.--TTL Danes likened the Outer Banks to Vendsyssel): Raleigh
New Zeeland (N.Y.): New Hague [New York, instead of New Amsterdam]
Ohio: Carlemanni [Cincinnati--named for the elite organization based on the Emperor TTL rather than OTL's farmer-general], Cleves [Cleveland], Pittsylvania [Pittsburgh]
Ouachitanie (Ark., Okla.)
Southfields (Ga., S.C.): Charles Town, New Atlantis [Savannah]
Sylvania (Penn.); cities: Concordia [Philadelphia]
Tenesy: Rosetta [Memphis, keeping with the IRL Egyptian theme]
Victoria (Va.--rather than being named for Gloriana): Richmond
Texas is confirmed as a country (and fits the feel of the TL), so I created a New Albyon* [I'm guessing TTL wanted to block New Denmark from being a continental power after it took Louisiana so I guess Geneva, Madrid, and London encouraged enduring buffer states in North America.]
Castile's Empire of Méjico, or Nueva España, includes Castile's Caribbean isles; its New Danish border is mostly the Gila, Pecos, and Nueces Rivers. Castile stayed Habsburg 1714, so the Bourbons didn't annoy the colonies and autonomist reforms could be introduced as needed--so there's no Tupac Amaru II to provide a precedent against Madrid, nor a Napoleonic invasion. The 19th-century economy is probably still going, with local forces handling the revolts caused by commercialization and industrialization. The Castilian Empire has in fact been "Americanized," Chile legally as much part of Castile as Andalusia. The Royal Family probably zeppelins to Chapultepec Palace every few years.
Veneçuela* is a colony of Catalonia, which has a protectorate over the Aboriginal kingdoms of Bacatà* and Popaian* to the southwest and Roraima (or Orinoquia*) to the south: these kingdoms also play the Hollanders, Brytish, and Castilians off against one another.
The Empire of Brasil is sometimes called High Brasil, in contrast with Hollands Surinam* (with its particularly nauseating loup-garou) and formerly-Hollands northern Brazil. Brasilian and Antilian slaves were probably as brutalized as in IRL, and New Danish ones treated more like in IRL Spanish America (FWIW), leaving a non-binary racial system. I made Peru an always-independent--though Christian--empire that managed to avoid being overthrown by poxy Italians. It's wildly rich from selling silver to China, Castile, and Germany, with even Brytain and France synchronizing their currency to the real/Thaler, giving us a worldwide silver Dollar. [Provinces from here]. Chiquitos* and Paraguay* are Reductions under the Javierites' direct rule, so they're big, whip-happy maté plantations. La Plata* is settled by Castilians, Brytish, and Italians, as in OTL. Terra do Fogo, or Magallanica is an island at the southern tip of Patagonia.
Oxford has Van Tieren's Land separate from Baffin Island and moreover it's in "atlas order" [ever since Ortelius maps run from Iceland to Tierra del Fuego] after America and Patagonia, so I guess it's either the Antarctic Peninsula (or, from the movie map, another Arctic island) France, Brytain, and Denmark have the Isles of St Maclovius, Sandwich Land, and the Desolation Islands* around Terra Antarctica.
The Kingdom of Brytain comprises the Kingdoms of of Eireland, England, Mann, and Scotland and the Princedom of Wales; Arthur Tudor produces an heir TTL [Amis], leading to King Alfred IV. Scandinavia of course comprises Norroway, Sveden, and independent Lapland (again we have kingdoms' names left untranslated; Trollesund is apparently supposed to be Bodø, or based on it, though Tromsø's bigger and matches this very bad map). I added Finnland or Suomy* because even though the coordinates for Novorossisk in North are for Finland it was a misprint in Pullman's source that he copied in its entirety, causing the discrepancy. Denmark includes the Duchies of Holstein, Scania*, and Schleswig; in the Atlantic it rules Estotiland*, the Færøerne, Fireland, Frisland* [super-Rockall], and Grœnland. Holland, or the United Low Countries, has acquired more of Friesland (with its famous wooden planetarium); I left Utrecht a prince-bishopric (though the commercial oligarchs electing the Stadhouder may not have liked so "feudal" an inclusion).
Constitutional-monarchical Bourbon France, less-constitutional Habsburg Castile and messianic Aviz Portugal, are self-explanatory. The Catalonian Foral Republic lost Valencia and the Balears to Castile in 1580, and regained them in the confusion of 1815; Navarre's fuero expanded into today's Basque Republic.
The German Electorates or Holy Roman Empire's emperors are elected by Austria, Bavaria, Bohemia, Brandenburg-Prussia, neo-Valois Lower Burgundy, Hannover, Mecklenburg-Hither Pomerania, and Saxony, the Prince-Archbishoprics of Bremen, Cologne, Trier, Liège, Salzburg, and Mainz, and the Electoral Palatinate (with the Rosicrucian Hortus Palatinus and Fate-Books still drawing visitors). In between these petty powers are a mess comprising the Abbacy of Fulda, the Bishoprics of Bamberg, Münster, Hildesheim, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Salzburg, and Würzburg, the Counties of Cleve, Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Kassel, Hohenzollern, Jülich-Berg, Nassau-Saarbrücken, and Zweibrücken, and the Duchies of Alsace, Baden, Oldenburg, Thuringia, and Württemberg. [I'd say that 16th-c. France and Germany saw the upper nobility turned against the Radical Reformation; the now-monarchomachic Church tightened controls on Scriptural interpretation, purged rural pagan influence, enforced celibacy, and destroyed Anabaptists.]
Italy has the Duchies of Modena*, Mantua*, Milan*, Parma*, Piacenza*, and Savoy* and the Republics of Tuscany*, Ferrara*, Genoa*, Lucca*, and Venice (still resembling Pullman's source, Brian Aldiss's Malacia Tapestry--perhaps even with Ancestral hunts and astrological "fortune bonds" being gamed by precogs), and the Kingdom of Naples, Sardinia, and Sicily.
The States of the Church comprise the old Papal States, Venaissin, and the canton of Vaud; Rome has the judiciary Vatican Council and the once-dominant College of Bishops, whereas the 12-man Consistorial Court of Discipline commands the Helvetic Guard and rules almost the Christian world. The States are formally protected by Florence (since Savonarola stormed Rome and was acclaimed Pope), Muscovy, Savoy, Germany, and the Swiss League*.
The Hungarian Empire (including a Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia) is the main bulwark against the Turk, protecting the Princedoms of Moldavia*, Transylvania, Wallachia* and the Székely Magyar Republic. It's the source of coveted Tokay wine (seriously, even the cheap stuff will floor you). Oxford has "the Baltic States" so I have Livonia* or the Terra Mariana.
Svalbard is the largest kingdom of the ice-going panserbjørne.
The Bridge to the Stars site has an official map here. Withc-domains expand with the flowering of plants and contract with migrations; a fight between Leutara and Kamäinen was ended "when a cloud of midges drifted east over the coal-moss beds." We know Witches cover Siberia and I'd say they go out through the Pripet until the woods get too thin.
Lake Enara, Serafina Pekkala
Lake Keitele, Sara Leino (lilac)
Lake Ladoga, Paula Pyhäjäro
Lake Lubana, Ruta Skadi (pea-green)
Miekojärvi, Katya Sirkka (forest green); blood feud against Tishozero
"Nania"? Julia Ojalami (fuchsia)
Tishozero, Reina Miti; blood feud against Mickojärvi
Umbozero, Tanja Leutara (violet)
Lake Visha, Juta Kamäinen
Muscovy's many "Tartars" (Alans, Balkars, Cheremiss, Circassians, Dargins, Finns, Iazones, Kalmyks, Karachays, Karelians, Kumyks, Laks, Letts, Lezgians, Mordvins, Nakhs, Nogais, Tabasarans, and Tavastians) ensure that the Empire is under tenuous control at best and often looming invasion at worst, giving Moscow the strongest and best-equipped army in the world, especially its elite Imperial Guard. The duchies (Belozersk, the Don, Kiev, Nizhny Novgorod, Smolensk, Tver, Vladimir-Suzdal, Yaroslavl) and princedoms (Astrakhan, Azerbaijan, Crimea, Kharkov, Moscow, Novgorod, Pskov, Ryazan, Tiflis, and Yelizavetpol) are in a lighter color: these are autonomous semi-hereditary realms (the Romanov Emperor--Ivan VI's heir Alexis III) meddles in which son or nephew in the dynasty the local Assembly of Nobles "chooses"). There's doukhobors and skoptsy a-plenty, given the Magisterium's anti-wiener policies [frankly having Will meet a vegetarian nudist castrato would be much more shocking than having a priest give him vodka and rant about witches stealing his seed--but Spyglass is so Middle-Englander that one's as scary as the other I guess!]. [Just spitballing, but I'd guess Muscovy failed to expand its frontage past St Petersburg (Oxford's 1812 "Baltic Wars") and napalmed Corea in treacherous alliance with Cathay in the 1950s-70s (to make a TTL Vietnam?).]
Western Tartary is partially within Muscovy, and extends over the Urals: it's a recruiting ground for the Imperial Guard among its "martial races"--Ostyaks, Samoyeds, and Voguls.
The Khan of Kazan* is de facto chosen by the Muscovite Emperor: he gives Muscovites full rights of movement and residence among the Bashkirs, Bolgars, Chuvash, Komi, Samoyeds, Tartars, and Votyaks.
The Khanate of Sibir* is particularly favored by Cossack settlers. Spyglass's Kholodnoye is probably in this country, along the Irtysh--though this would make the panserbjørne be settling in the Altays (since Lake Baikal has seals) and not the Himalayas or Kunlun Shan.
The rest of Siberia is heavily settled and garrisoned by Muscovy at Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk, but has troublesome Buryats, Dolgans, Evenks, Evens, Koryaks, Oirats, Yakuts, and Yukaghirs.
The Pashalik of the Kazakhs (or Turkestan) includes the Kyrgyz, Naimans, Uzbegs, and Turkomans. Given its ruler's title (and its location) it'd be Persianized, maybe maintained as a universal buffer by Moscow and Tehran.
The Ottoman Empire's vassals are the Deylik of Algiers*, the Sultanate of Ægypt, the Pashalik of the Fezzan*, and the Beylik of Tunis*. Mesopotamia around Mosul and Carrhae (probably feudalish and quite Kurdish) is an obligate ally of the Most Sublime Porte [if it's a separate country, but it was out of Constantinople's hands even in OTL's 19th c.]. Amis has it as his TL's USSR-equivalent so it's divided into ethnic autonomous provinces and districts. I'd say the Shiites got reincorporated/subsumed somehow TTL, like the Protestants.
Geneva, the Hague, and Copenhagen aren't gonna let the Brytish up the Ganges. [Oxford has Brytish officers in the Hindu Kush, so India's at least partially colonial, and unable to stop toffs from fishing in Afghanistan. India's also a British viceroyalty in Amis--but so's all Indochina!]
Cathay, Corea, and Nippon are moderately industrialized: Confucianism has inspired Church and French Scholars as in OTL. The Ezo Republic* and the Kingdom of Luchu* were Muscovy's targets of influence when it set the three East Asian powers against each other. The eastern Tartars--Buryats, Kalmyk, Khalkha, and Oirats--are only nominally subject to Cathay and federated at Urga. The Ignatians run the international ports at Macau and Dejima.
The Austral Empire has suborned Maori New Holland and "protects" the islands of the Peaceable Ocean. Only Owyhee* has escaped its reach. Auster proper was settled by Brytish, Cathayans, Dutch, Javans, and Nipponese atop the black, russet-haired Autochthons. I myself imagine it to be full of Austro-Bavarian Baroque works, like at Admont, St. Gall, St. Florian, or Melk.
West Africa has Portuguese Guinea and the Green Cape, French St.-Louis, Muscovite Ft. Andrey, Futa Jalon* (west) and Futa Toro* (north), and the Pepper and Ivory Coasts. The Empire of Benin, or the Empire of the Niger, is resisting Christianity with its hated "Separated" troops and its profits from slaving; it's also famed for its bronzes.
The Sahara has several oases benefiting from trade with the Empire of Fez and Morocco: Adrar, Agadez, Awdaghost, Bilma, Figuig, Laghouat, the Mzab, Tadmekka, Taghaza, Tawdani, Touggourt, Wadan, Walata, and Wargla.
Yemen* dominates the Red Sea entrance and wants Omani Soqotra to seize the frankincense trade.
* = non-canonical country; I also made up a lot of city names
flags here and here; religion map here
everyone's waiting for "The Book of Dust" in 2037 so we can finish our maps!
They seems to be the go to army guys, which made me really confused when they were guarding bolvangar, which from what I understand lies in Sweden.
all I could gather about Bolvangar is that it's a few days through forests from "Trollesund," which I assume as a stand-in for Tromsø: I guess Lapland (mortal and witch alike) was able to play off Oslo, Copenhagen, and Stockholm against each other and created a condominium, or maybe even sparked a war outside of Scandinavia
we'll get more clues when The Book of Dust comes out 2016 or 2036
yeah, a reader definitely needs geographical knowledge for this (though I did put everything in order by continent), so it turns into a big list; I just made deductions from the 17th-c. stuff (and Aldiss) that inspired Pullman (a lot's actually been published on him and his sources)
I've never been one for the "AH.com numbered map" but I hereby authorize thee to do what you want with my map--but unlike most SF/fantasy writers he isn't active in the "community": it's the only fantasy around today without the obligatory map, and he's very reticent regarding his conworld--he hasn't even promoted his promised 4th work
Lee Scoresby's a New Dane from the country of Texas--make of that what you will! But Once Upon a Time in the North has plenty of Anglophone Texans. New France is described as having good scientists and banning trepanning, but that's it. The Alamo was a fight between Danes and French TTL, so both groups had a strong presence in that area (which still retains its Caddo name and a chief port named for a Gálvez).
Alas, all we have to go on for world-building is the rich epic description of Northern Lights/Golden Compass, some bits and pieces from Subtle Knife, set in Cittŕgazze (based on Aldiss, Canaletto's paintings, and general Renaissance magic/alchemy), some scraps from and Amber Spyglass, which spends most of its time wasting ours, and a complete list of countries--some surprising--in Lyra's Oxford. But Pullman basically has abandoned this fantasy universe, as opposed to authors who gush forth multi-book cycles and handmade maps and supplements and atmospherics for their eager fanbase.